International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2020-06-05T10:27:30+0530 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">B.R.Nahata Smriti Sansthan International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive (IJPBA) is published quarterly since 2010 by the Mandsaur University, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Our journal is a quarterly journal and&nbsp;&nbsp; publishes four issues per year. The management of journal handling everything unbiased and maintains qualification of journal. The journal publishes original reviews, original research articles, and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of sciences and pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from&nbsp;<a href=""></a>.</p> <p>The character of the publications:</p> <ul> <li>&nbsp;Scientific Biology</li> <ul> <li>Anatomy</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Morphology</li> <li>Taxonomy</li> <li>Toxicology</li> </ul> <li>Chemistry</li> <ul> <li>Analytical chemistry</li> <li>Polymer chemistry</li> <li>Spectroscopy</li> </ul> <li>Medicine</li> <ul> <li>Diabetology</li> <li>Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li>Scientific disciplines:</li> <li>Toxicology</li> </ul> </ul> Floating Drug Delivery System: An Outlook 2020-05-04T10:58:14+0530 Himal Barakoti <p>Floating drug delivery approach uses low-density systems that have sufficient buoyancy to flow over the<br>gastric contents and remains buoyant in the stomach without affecting the stomachic emptying rate for a<br>chronic period of time. This result is increased gastric retention time and better control of the fluctuations<br>in plasma drug concentration with a low risk of toxicity. Drugs, which are locally active in the stomach,<br>drugs having narrow absorption window and unstable in the intestine, and colonic environment, are the<br>potential drug candidates. The approach not only improves drug absorption but also minimizes the mucosal<br>irritation of drugs. As the approach requires a high fluid level in the stomach to float and work efficiently,<br>it makes the approach limited up to some extent. Many buoyant systems have been developed based on<br>granules, powders, capsules, tablets, laminated films, and hollow microspheres and few formulations have<br>been commercialized in the market at the present time. This review gives an overview of the approach of<br>floating drug delivery at present with sequential demystification thus enabling a greater understanding of<br>their role in medicine and drug delivery</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) Hepatoprotective Potential of Tephrosia purpurea in Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats 2020-05-04T11:12:44+0530 Prashant Kumar Desai <p>Background: Hepatotoxicity ultimately leads to liver failure. Conventional treatment options for hepatotoxicity are limited and not safe. Aim: The present work has been designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The plant roots, T. purpurea, were collected from the local area of Jodhpur, Rajasthan, and verification was done by Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Jodhpur, Rajasthan, and a herbarium specimen was deposited in BSI with No. LMC/PM/PD-001. All other reagents and chemicals were of suitable analytical grade and were used as received. Results: On the basis of statistical analysis, both the doses (200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt) of the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea root shown significant hepatoprotective activity compare to negative control. The dose of 400 mg/kg b.wt showed better reduction in serum enzyme level compare to 200 mg/kg b.wt dose of the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea root. Results were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA non-parametric) followed by Dunnett’s test with P &lt; 0.01 considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it may be concluded that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea root has a significant protective effect on liver injuries.</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) Physiochemical Screening of Carica papaya Leaves with Specific Reference to Their Pharmacognostical Evaluation 2020-05-04T11:17:17+0530 Chhavi Verma <p>Carica papaya is made to develop pharmacognostical characters of leaf with their morphological, microscopical, and physical characters including histochemical analysis. Morphological evaluation as color, odor, taste, size, shape, surface, and powder microscopy of plant shows the presence of endosperm cell which is polygonal in shape and contains aleurone grains and oil droplet, cell of testa, yellow coloring matter, and starch grains. Quantitative leaf microscopy to determine palisade ratio, stomata index, and vein-islet number is carried out. Peels are removed mechanically through epidermal peeling off and stomatal index (SI) is calculated. The vein-islet number, vein termination number, and palisade ratio of lamina are determined according to the standard method. We prepared the extracts of plant with different solvents for determining the different extractive values by maceration, Soxhlet extraction, successive extraction process, and determination of ash values, pH value, moisture content, and phytochemical screening to show the presence of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, saponins, and lipids in the drug extract and fluorescence analysis in different solvent. Analysis of pesticide residues, aflatoxin, and heavy metals are also performed</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) Effect of Aqueous Administration of White Grub and Waste Extract on the Levels of Liver and Kidney Indices in Diabetic Rats 2020-05-04T11:22:44+0530 Said Sani Said <p>Introduction: The liver plays a major role in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, as it uses glucose as a fuel and kidneys are to excrete metabolic waste products as well as to maintain water, pH, electrolyte balance, production of calcitriol, and hemopoietin. Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of the administration of white grub and waste on liver and kidney indices on diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were induced with diabetes by alloxanization and treated with the extracts of white grub and waste for 2 weeks. A total of 25 rats used, were randomly distributed into five groups (G1-G5) each with five rats. G1 served as normal control. G2-G5 served as diabetic control. At the end of the 1st week of extract administration, two animals from each group were randomly selected and sacrificed. At the end of the 2nd week, the remaining three animals from each group were also sacrificed and serum was collected for the determination of liver function indices (serum alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST] total bilirubin [TB], direct bilirubin [DB], total protein [TP], albumin [ALB], and globulin [GLB]) and kidney function parameters (urea, creatinine, and electrolyte [sodium “Na,” potassium “K,” bicarbonate “HCO3,” and chloride “Cl”]). Results: After the 1st week, the extract-treated group (G4 and G5) showed significant reductions of ALP, ALT, AST, TP, GLB, and ALB while TB and DB have normal value compared to diabetic untreated group and for renal function (G4 and G5) showed significantly lower levels of urea, Na, K, HCO3, creatinine, and Cl. After the 2nd week, the extract-treated group showed significant reductions of ALP, ALT, AST, DB, TP, ALB, and TB with significant increased levels of GLB and TP compared to diabetic untreated group (G2). G4 (extract treated) showed significantly (P &lt; 0.05) lower levels of urea, Na, Cl, HCO3, and creatinine and with significant increased K levels compared to G2. G5 also extract-treated group indicates significant lower levels of urea, Cl, Na, and HCO3 and higher levels of creatinine and K compared to G2. Conclusion: These results suggest that the administration of aqueous extract of white grub and waste did not have any adverse effect on the liver and kidney functions in diabetic rats. The extracts have positive effect which showed that G4 (treated with whole white grub [WG]) is more effective compared to G5 (treated with WG waste).</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) Growth Pattern of Paecilomyces lilacinus in Different Eco-friendly Media 2020-05-04T11:28:18+0530 Payal Pancholi <p>Paecilomyces lilacinus is a common saprophytic, filamentous fungus. Morphological characters of P. lilacinus were separate mycelium, hyaline, conidia white to pink colored, and formation of phialides. The growth of P. lilacinus carried out on Sabouraud dextrose agar, coconut, molasses, and potato dextrose agar media at room temperature was better than incubator (25°C). The fungus has the capacity to colonize the rhizosphere and to grow in close association with nematodes. P. lilacinus was mass multiplied in both solid substrate for sorghum grains and liquid media for coconut water. Effect of temperature on the growth of P. lilacinus wasstudied in solid substrate (sorghum grain) and liquid media (coconut water) at different temperature, namely, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1°C. Number of colonies forming units in sorghum grain was found to be maximum at 30 ± 1°C followed by 35 ± 1°C. In liquid media (coconut water) also, maximum dry mycelial weight was recorded at 30 ± 1°C which was on par with 35 and 25 ± 1°C. It shows effect of temperature on the mycelial growth.</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) Growth Pattern of Beauveria bassiana in Different Eco-friendly Media 2020-05-04T11:37:51+0530 Sonam Yadav <p>Beauveria bassiana belongs to the class Deuteromycetes which is one of the important disease-causing biocontrol agents in insects. B. bassiana, formerly known as Botrytis bassiana (Balsamo), is a widely distributed soil inhabiting fungus. B. bassiana is also known to be best biocontrol agent against larval stage of the silkworm. B. bassiana is categorized as a white muscardine fungus due to the white color of sporulating colonies. It is a type of biopesticide which is based on entomopathogenic fungi which are often considerable scope as plant protection agents against several pathogens and insects including whiteflies, aphids, thrips, grasshoppers, and certain types of beetles. The present study deals with the use of different media such as coconut media, jaggery media, nutrient media, potato dextrose media, Sabouraud dextrose media, and molasses media.</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) Design and Synthesis of New Derivatives of (E)-3-(5-((phenylamino)methyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one for their Anticonvulsant Potential 2020-06-05T10:25:13+0530 Aditya Sahu <p>Objective: The objective of the paper was to design and synthesize new derivatives of ((E)-3-(5-((substitutedphenylamino)methyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one and evaluated for their anticonvulsant potential. Materials and Methods: Various synthesis of (E)-3-(5-(substitutedaminomethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives has been synthesized by reacting 2-substituted benzoxazin-4-one with (E)-2-(4-Substituedstyryl)-4H-benzo[d] [1,3]oxazin-4-one. All synthesized compounds have been characterized by the infrared, 1HNMR, and mass spectral analysis. Proposed compounds have been evaluated for anticonvulsant potential by subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock seizure model and compared with the reference drug phenytoin and carbamazepine. Neurotoxicity study of the synthesized compounds was also performed. Results and Discussion: The anticonvulsant evaluation of synthesized compound QNM-1, QNM-2, QNM-4, QNM-6, QNM-9, QNM-11, QNM-13, and QNM-15 has shown seizure protection at 100 mg/kg dose after 30 min and 4 h, so they have good onset of action as quickly reach brain and have prolonged action reveal that compound metabolized slowly. Whereas compound QNM-7, QNM-8, and QNM-12 were moderate active and reveal that their high concentration is required to cross blood brain barrier. Compounds QNM-3, QNM-5, QNM-10, and QNM-14 were less active. Compounds having chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and nitro in the phenyl moiety have shown good activity when attached to para group but the addition of meta and ortho group of the same may provide least active compounds and in last fluorine compounds have shown comparative less active compounds. Conclusion: The Pharmacological evaluation suggest that eight synthesized compounds have shown promising anticonvulsant potential and bulkier compounds can easily penetrate BBB to exert their effect.</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 Formulation and Biological Evaluation of Some Selected Medicinal Plants for Anti-inflammatory Potential 2020-06-05T10:27:30+0530 Neelesh Kumar <p>Objective: The aim of the paper is to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of three medicinal plants using two rat models. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet extraction approaches utilized to separate the constituents of interest. Quantitative analysis has been performed to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Three plants extract employed for the ointment formulation by addition of the extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus (AH), Murraya koenigii (MK), and Punica granatum (PG) in polyethylene glycol (PEG) ointment base, a blend of PEG 600 and PEG 4000, and ratio 7:3, respectively. Two rat models based on chemical induced animals employed for the anti-inflammatory potential. Results and Discussion: All three plants including AH Lam., MK Linn., and PG Linn. extracted for the major component and have shown the gallic acid and quercetin as major component for flavonoid and phenol content. The ointment formulation F3 has showed maximum inhibition (80.95%) at 50 mg/kg dose of carrageenan-induced edema and 83.33% inhibition at 100 mg/kg dose. The ointment formulation F3 has showed maximum inhibition (78.57%) at 50 mg/kg dose of histamine persuade edema and 83.33% inhibition at 100 mg/kg dose. F3 ointment formulation is better than the F2 and F1 formulation in inhibition and in all phases showing its reserve of kinins as well as arachidonic acid. Conclusion: Quantitative and pharmacological evaluation indicated that ointment formulations of AH, MK, and PG have exploit for anti-inflammatory activity. The normal extract has shown the least activity but ointment formulations have shown the better result. The ointment formulations containing plant extracts in 10% amount have better wound healing potential.</p> 2020-03-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c)