International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive (IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the Mandsaur University, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India. The journal publishes original reviews, original research articles, and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of sciences and pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from</p> <p>The character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> BRNSS Publication Hub, Mandsaur en-US International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 0976-3333 <h3>To,</h3> <p>Mr. M A Naidu</p> <p>Editor in Chief</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive</strong></p> <p>Mandsaur Institute of Pharmacy</p> <p>Rewas-Dewda Road Near MIT Campus,Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh - 458 001</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Phone No:</strong> (07422) - 239115, 919907530044</p> <p><strong>Fax No: </strong>(07422) - 239115</p> <p>Mobile:09406674035<br><strong>E-mail:</strong> <strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> <p>Dear Sir,</p> <p>Sub: Submission of an original paper with copyright agreement and authorship responsibility ( submit by e-mail only)</p> <p>&nbsp;Topic entitled:</p> <p>&nbsp;I certify that I have participated sufficiently in the conception and design of this work and the analysis of the data (wherever applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it. I believe the manuscript represents valid work. I have reviewed the final version of the manuscript and approve it for publication. Neither has the manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. Furthermore I attest that I shall produce the data upon which the manuscript is based for examination by the editors or their assignees, if requested.</p> <p>Kindly find it suitable to publish in your esteemed journal.</p> <p>Thanking you</p> <p>Yours sincerely,</p> <p>Author name and address&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Signature</p> Review on Reversed-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method Development and Validation for Estimation of Rivaroxaban <p>This review article is proposed to underline method for the development by reversed-phase highperformance<br>liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and validation of rivaroxaban in individual and<br>pharmaceutical dosage form. Rivaroxaban is an anti-clotting drug, acts on Factor Xa, and stops the blood<br>clot development. In this study, different types of RP-HPLC methods which are available at present<br>for the determination of rivaroxaban in tablets (Xarelto 10 mg) are studied. There are different types<br>of the methods described for the estimation of this drug such as RP-HPLC, ultra performance liquid<br>chromatography (UPLC), and ultraviolet. However, nowadays, RP-HPLC plays a key role in quantitative<br>determination of drug. The review is focused on HPLC method development that is previously used for<br>rivaroxaban. Literature study carried on RP-HPLC, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and<br>UPLC methods of rivaroxaban. The center of study was to develop as well as validate a stable, economic,<br>and rapid. The RP-HPLC method for assessment of rivaroxaban in its bulk formulation. Here, a new<br>aspect for this method was developed which revealed high sensitivity and reproducibility. The developed<br>method by RP-HPLC was validated by guidelines of ICH.</p> Miss. J. V. More ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Microemulsion – A Potential Carrier for Improved Bioavailability <p>Microemulsion (ME) are one of the potential and emerging drug carrier systems that help to improve the drug release and enhance the bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. These are considered as thermodynamically stable system which mainly consists of three to five components such as aqueous phase, an oil phase, surfactant, cosurfactant, and in some cases electrolyte. Microemulsion became more popular as a drug delivery system, due to some of its unique features such as its capacity to increase the bioavailability, long shelf life and ease of preparation, and huge scope of application. The delivery system is widely used in different filed such as pharmaceutical, food industries, and cosmetics industries. As per literature, around 40% of the newly arrived drug molecules are poorly water-soluble in nature and results in poor bioavailability. Therefore, ME drug delivery system may play a key role to overcome the mentioned issue. Hence, the review has been written with an aim to address the capacity of ME drug delivery system to overcome the solubility issue of poor water-insoluble drugs and to provide adequate information’s about its possible application.</p> Priyanka Goswami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Assessment of Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection and Susceptibility of Antimicrobials Agents and Resistant Patterns among Suspected Females Patients of Two Major Hospitals of Western Nepal <p>Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common and serious health problem affecting many people each year around the world especially females. Therapy of UTI relies on the predictability of the agents causing UTI and knowledge of their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in two major hospitals of Western Nepal. Tools for data collection were a data collection form. A total of 400 patient’s file with suspected UTI were reviewed, out of which 173 (43.3%) of the suspected samples showed the presence of potential pathogens causing UTI. UTI was most prevalent in females of age group of 21–30 years. Escherichia coli was the predominant (65.1%) bacterial pathogen. Amikacin was found to be the most sensitive antimicrobial followed by nitrofurantoin and gentamicin. Ampicillin showed a higher percentage of resistant, compared to other antimicrobials. As drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, regular surveillance and monitoring are necessary to provide effective treatment of UTIs.</p> Dr. Suman Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Fourier-transform Infrared Analysis and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Ormocarpum cochinchinense (Elumbotti) <p>The present research is to assess the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis and antibacterial activities of Ormocarpum cochinchinense leaf extract using different solvents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethyl acetate, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and chloroform. To investigation of FT-IR analysis and antibacterial activities become used agar well diffusion method. FT-IR vibrational bands confirmed that the fractions of O. cochinchinense had lots of biologically active compounds which include H–Bonded Phenols, alkanes, carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid, flavonoids, polyphenols, catechins, aromatics, and aliphatic amines. Antibacterial activity showed that the strongest activities had been produced by MeOH solvent reaction with all the human pathogens. This research may be concluded that MeOH solvent extract of O. cochinchinense might be a capability for the treatment of antibacterial activities.</p> Sivakumar Thirumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Isolation and Characterization of a Water-soluble Disaccharide from Methanolic Extract of Arisaema utile and Its Evaluation for Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity <p>The aim of this study is to isolation, identification and characterized the bioactive compounds from the rhizomes of Arisaema utile. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the rhizome extract of A. utile revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. The air-dried rhizomes were pulverized to a powder, subjected to Soxhlet extraction and compound isolation. The isolated compound was colorless crystalline, which was further subjected to IR,13CNMR, and 1HNMR for proper characterization and elucidation of the structure. The compound was concluded as water-soluble disaccharide–Sucrose (2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymeth-yl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol, antioxidant activity of the isolated compound was measured by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay under in vitro condition. The isolated compound showed the most promising radical scavenging activity at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. Antifungal activity of the isolated compound was investigated against five fungal strains (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida paropsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei), using MIC80 assay. The most susceptible strains were Candida paropsilosis (MIC80 = 128 μg/mL).</p> Arif Hussain Bhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Role of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in the Management of Depression by Regulating Hyperhomocysteinemia <p>Depression is one of the major health burden in almost all the societies particularly in urban community.<br>As per the World Health Organization, depression will be the second largest disease burden due to the<br>urban way of lifestyle. The modern era is full of stress and strains the people are living in the most<br>competitive society than the previous year. Although many antidepressant drugs have been develop<br>to manage anxiety, stress and depression due to adverse side reaction, most of the drug could show<br>satisfactory results. Considering the above fact, we have selected a drug Hippophae rhamnoides which<br>contain many phyto molecules showing preventing role of anxiety and depression by regulating some<br>of the biochemical parameters.</p> G. P. Dubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Analytical Method for Development and Validation of Flupirtine Maleate by Reverse-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography <p>Background: Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic. Flupirtine acts like a N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, yet does not bind to the receptor. Objective: A novel reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established to the analysis of flupirtine in raw material and finished products. The purpose of the present research work was to find quantitation of flupirtine by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) in tablet dose form. The proposed strategy is approved according to the ICH rules. Materials and Methods: Orthophosphoric acid, HPLC grade methanol, triethylamine, methanol, and chloroform were used. HPLC Column C18 (150 mm × 25.4 mm) with a mobile phase methanol:water (90:10), flow rate of 1 ml/min, was used injection volume 20 μl in run time 20 min. Then we performed method development and its subsequent validation, accuracy and analyte of Robust. Results: All the system suitability parameters were within the limit and a sharp peak with better resolution and purity was obtained with the developed method. Recovery studies are between the ranges of 98.0% and 120% with a relative standard deviation at each level of &lt;2.0%, which proves that the method is accurate for the estimation of flupirtine maleate over the range 50%–150% of target concentration. Conclusion: The developed and validated RP-HPLC analysis method is, therefore, recommended to use for routine analysis.</p> Dilipkumar Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Variation of Growth Dynamics and Resource Allocation Patterns of Dictamnus albus <p>Dictamnus albus is a medicinally important plant distributed throughout South and central Europe, temperate Asia, and Himalayas. The present study was devised for the 1st time to understand the variation in growth characteristics and changes in allocation patterns in relation to altitude and habitats of Kashmir Himalaya. The present investigation revealed extensive variability in morphological parameters both within and across the individuals of different populations. Our findings clearly displayed significant divergence among sites which reveal a definite impact of altitude and habitat on morphological and reproductive features of the species under study. Our results are very useful to introduce the species into cultivation and developing strategies for conservation.</p> Saduf Nissar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Assessment of Zooplankton Diversity in Kosavampatti Lake at Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu <p>Kosavampatti Lake is a historical lake situated in Namakkal district. A lake usually helps in recharging groundwater, and the trees in and around the lake serve as a nesting place for birds. Zooplankton is the vital constituents of water flora which aids as the main component of the aquatic food chain. It sustains appropriate equilibrium between biotic and abiotic components of the water ecosystem. The present study aimed to deal with zooplankton diversity in Kosavampatti Lake. The investigation was carried out for 1 year, i.e., October 2017–September 2018. During the study period, the zooplankton population of Kosavampatti Lake water is characterized by five various classes, namely Protozoa, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracods, and Rotifera, with 19 different species which were noted and documented in Kosavampatti Lake. The main classes of Rotifera are the highest groups among zooplankton and the density of zooplankton community was higher in summer and lesser in monsoon. The results of various kinds of diversity indices strongly indicate that Kosavampatti Lake is absolutely polluted in nature.</p> G. Sharmila Banu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Piper nigrum and Ferula foetida shows Significant Antisecretory and Anti Ulcer Activity in Rats <p>In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of aqueous extract of Piper nigrum and Ferula foetida (AEPF) was investigated. In the current study AEPF showed significant anti ulcer activity in rats. The antiulcerogenic impact of the AEPF is also associated with its antisecretory action since acid may be a major consideration of the event of ulceration. The current data also clearly demonstrated that 400 mg/kg is more effective than 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg dose of AEPF and has shown increased pH and decreased total acidity of gastric fluid. The ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers was developed in rats that received cysteamine HCl 400 mg/kg. The exact mechanism of pathological process within the cysteamine-induced peptic ulcer model is not totally known, but hypersecretion of gastric acid, deterioration of mucosal resistance, and promotion of gastric emptying are among the possible mechanisms. In cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, blood parameters such as glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were estimated. The significant increase in blood sugar level was discovered because, beneath nerve-racking conditions, ductless gland secretes corticosterone in man and glucocorticoid in rats. AEPF significantly reduced the elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels, which may be due to inhibition of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.</p> Vuyyala Balakrishna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Studies on Aminobenzothiazole and Derivatives: Part-1. Synthesis of Intermediates –1,3-Di(substituted-phenyl)-thiourea using Ammonium Thiocyanate <p>1,3-Di(substituted-phenyl)-thiourea is used as intermediate in different reactions because they play an important role in synthesizing the different heterocyclic compounds. These reactions involve the synthesis of an intermediate, substituted-phenylammonium chloride which is converted to 1,3-Di(substituted-phenyl)-thiourea using ammonium thiocyanate. The final product formed, 1,3-Di(substituted-phenyl)-thiourea has potential to use as an intermediate in the synthesis of a building block for the heterocyclic compound, 2-aminobenzothiazole.</p> C. J. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Reduction of Azomethine Bond of Organic Compound: Part-2. Formation of Aldimine and Ketimine and their Catalytic Hydrogenation <p>Azomethine compounds were prepared from Benzaldehyde and o-hydroxy-acetophenone with aniline and o-Nitroaniline. The azomethine bond in the compound is reduced using NaBH4 in 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution. The reaction is monitored by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectral method. Etheral layer is concentrated to get the reduction product. The final products were analyzed by a physical constant, TLC, and spectral techniques such as UV-Vis and Fourier-transform infrared.</p> C. J. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Rhizophora mucronata and Ceriops decandra and their Antagonistic Activity on Gut Cellulolytic Bacteria <p>To find out the bactericidal properties of biosynthesis silver nanoparticles synthesized with Ceriops decandra (C. decandra) and Rhizophora mucronata (R. mucronata), aqueous leaf extract against the cellulolytic bacteria isolated from gut of Macrotermes convolsionarius a termite species. Further, characterization such as ultraviolet, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy was analyzed for biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. A total of 16 isolates were collected from gut of termites. Of these, seven bacterial isolates exhibited positive cellulolytic test. The isolated cellulolytic bacterial colonies were subjected to antibacterial assay with synthesized silver nanoparticles of the selected mangrove plants. C. decandra showed highest zone of inhibition (16 mm at the concentration of 150 μg/disc) with TGBS15 and R. mucronata showed highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the concentration of 150 μg/disc) with TGBS09. The synthesized silver nanoparticles of R. mucronata and C. decandra have maximum absorption at 430 and 400 nm. The XRD data showed 2 θ intense values with various degrees such as 25–30°. The FT-IR results revealed prominent peaks in R. mucronata showed absorption bands at 3444, 1622, 1384, 1071, and 471 cm−1 and C. decandra showed absorption bands at 3606, 3418, 2923, 1069, 474, and 426 cm−1, respectively. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with aqueous leaf extract of R. mucronata provides potential source for cellulolytic bacteria of termites</p> M. Vijaya Sankar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02 Reverse-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Estimation of Methotrexate and Tretinoin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms <p>A simple, sensitive, and selective reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with for the estimation of methotrexate (MTX) and tretinoin in pharmaceutical formulation and in spiked plasma developed and validate in the present work. Chromatographic separation of drug is performed with a 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm diameter particles RP C-18 column, and the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of Acetonitrile (ACN):buffer (85:15, v/v). Isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with ultraviolet detection at 340 nm at ambient temperature is used in this method. The proposed RP-HPLC method is successfully applied for the determination of MTX and tretinoin in pharmaceutical preparation and spiked plasma samples. The validation studies are carried out and it’s fulfilling ICH requirements. The method is found to be specific, linear, precise (including both intra- and inter-day precision), accurate, and robust. This proposed method may represent a valuable aid in the laboratory monitoring of the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy.</p> Ashish Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 10 02