http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/issue/feed International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2020-08-19T14:47:37+0530 Mr. M A Naidu editor@ijpba.info Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive (IJPBA) with <strong>ISSN: 2582-6050(Online)</strong>&nbsp;is published quarterly since 2010 by the Mandsaur University, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India.&nbsp;&nbsp; Our journal is a quarterly journal and&nbsp;&nbsp; publishes four issues per year. The management of journal handling everything unbiased and maintains qualification of journal. The journal publishes original reviews, original research articles, and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of sciences and pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="http://www.ijpba.info/">http://www.ijpba.info</a>.</p> <p>The character of the publications:</p> <ul> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology</li> <ul> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> <li class="show">Chemistry</li> <ul> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> <li class="show">Medicine</li> <ul> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </ul> http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1870 Novel Antihypertensive Drug Used in Clinical Practice: A Review 2020-08-19T14:37:35+0530 Dr. Sanjay Bais sanjaybais1968@gmail.com <p>Introduction: Blood pressure (BP) control continues to be important in reducing cardiovascular risk, along with the modification of other cardiovascular risk factors, especially cholesterol level. Lifestyle modification to reduce BP may control Stage 1 hypertension. Drug treatment should be based on evidence of improved outcomes and individualized account for the patient age, race, and quality of life. BP varies from minute to minute and is influenced by measurement technique, time of day, emotion, pain, discomfort, hydration, temperature, exercise, posture, and drugs. Purpose of Review: In this review, we examine how synthetic novel drugs involved in the management of hypertension not only in the wider population but also within special population groups such as the elderly, pregnant women, and those with a trial fibrillation. Conclusion: The extensive synthetic work carried out shows that some molecules are very effectively managing the hypertension in all ages of patients. Summary: We have made an attempt in reviewing the literature on 1,2 pyrazoline derivatives for their medicinal uses with the help of chemical abstract, journals, and internet surfing.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1871 Assessment of Knowledge Regarding Antibiotic Use, its Resistance, and Future Consequences among Higher Secondary Students in Private Schools of Kathmandu Valley 2020-08-19T14:39:22+0530 Dr. Satish Kumar Deo satish.deo@iom.edu.np <p>Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health, as infections from resistant strains of microbial become increasingly difficult and expensive to treat, resulting in prolonged illness and greater risk of death. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done among 471 higher secondary level students of private schools in Kathmandu Valley. Data were collected from Grade 11 and 12 non-science faculty students through self-administered questionnaires. Half (50.5%) of the students gave correct response by saying that antibiotic kills bacteria and 49.1% said that it is for fever. Majority (93.0%) of them said that it should be taken with water. Regarding the response on when to stop taking antibiotic, 46.9% said correctly by saying when all prescribed medicines are taken whereas and 40.8% said that after feeling better. More than half (58.8%) of the students had not heard about antibiotic resistance, whereas those who have heard among them 24% of students said that they had heard from doctor and nurses and 21.8% from family member and friends. Nearly one-third (32.7%) of students knew that antibiotic resistance occurs using antibiotic when they are not necessary. Regarding the response on consequences of antibiotic resistance, more than one-third (38.2%) of students gave correct answer. Nearly half of the students have lack of knowledge about antibiotic. Thus, it is imperative to create awareness among students by introducing a specific course on antibiotic in the 9th and 10th grade core curriculum to prevent antibiotic resistance and its consequences.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1872 New Derivatives of (E)-3-(5-((substitutedphenylamino)methyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-styryl quinazolin-4(3H)-one: Searching for New Antifungal and Antibacterial Agents 2020-08-19T14:43:46+0530 Aditya Sahu adityasahurock93@gmail.com <p>Objective: The objective of the paper was to evaluate the antifungal and antibacterial potential of new derivatives of ((E)-3-(5-((substitutedphenylamino)methyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-styryl quinazolin-4(3H)-one. Materials and Methods: Various syntheses of (E)-3-(5-(substitutedaminomethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives have been synthesized by reacting 2-substituted benzoxazin-4-one with (E)-2-(4-Substituedstyryl)-4H-benzo[d] [1,3]oxazin-4-one. All synthesized compounds have been characterized by the infrared, 1HNMR, and mass spectral analysis. Proposed compounds have been evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized compounds (QNM-1 to QNM-15) has been carried through the serial dilution method. For bacterial screening, bacterial species were taken includes Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-441), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-424), and Escherichia coli (MTCC-40). Norfloxacin (1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4,dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinoline carboxylic acid) was used as the standard drug for antibacterial study. For antifungal screening, the following fungal species were used includes Aspergillus niger (MTCC-281), Candida albicans (MTCC-227), and Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC-284). Clotrimazole was selected as a standard drug for antifungal study. Results and Discussion: QNM-1, QNM-2, QNM-3, QNM-5, QNM-7, QNM-9, QNM-12, QNM-14, and QNM-15 were the most active compounds [Table 1] in the synthesized series which were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms by the antibacterial screening. In the case of antibacterial activity, the presence of electronegative group (Cl, Br, F, and NO2) at both R may enhance the activity when they are p-substituted, but the compounds QNM-6 (R1=-C6H5Br (o); Ar=-C6H5), QNM-10 (R1 = -C6H5F (o); Ar= -C6H5F), QNM-11 (R1 =-C6H5NO2 (p); Ar=-C6H5F), and QNM-4 (R1 =-C6H5F (m); Ar=-C6H5) with given substitution may result in diminishing the activity. In case of antifungal activity, compounds QNM-1, QNM-5, QNM-7, QNM-9, QNM-11, QNM-12, QNM-14, and QNM-15 were the most active compounds in the synthesized series which were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In that series, compounds QNM-14, QNM-11, QNM-5, and QNM-7 have shown the highest activity. Compounds QNM-3, QNM-6, QNM-10, and QNM-13 have the least active. This result has also concluded that o-substituted compounds, i.e., -C6H5Cl(o), -C6H5Cl (m), -C6H5Br(o), -C6H5F (o), -C6H5F (p) at R1 position my resulted in diminishing or lower the activity.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1873 Effects of Noise Stress on Body Weight and Adrenal Gland Weight of Male Wistar Rats 2020-08-19T14:45:49+0530 Ravinder Kr Mehra rxravimehra@gmail.com <p>The present study was designed to investigate the effects of varying intensities of noise stress onto the body and adrenal gland weight (absolute) of 17 weeks old (291–296) gram (g) Wistar rat. Animals were exposed to varying intensity of noise, i.e., 60 dB (Decibel), 80 dB, 100 dB, 120 dB, and 140 dB for 1 h (h)/day for 30 days. The dose of different noise intensities was delivered through a special fabricated noise chamber which had provided all daily needs of animal-like oxygen, food, and water. Food and water consumption behavior was recorded on 1st, 14th, and 29th days and body weight change recorded on 1st, 15th, and 30th days after the exposure of noise stress. Absolute adrenal glands weight was recorded on the 30th day. The results of the present study showed that the food, water consumption behavior, and body weight (g) of the experimental group EG1 (60 dB), EG2 (80 dB), EG3 (100 dB), EG4 (120 dB), and EG5 (140 dB) were found to be significantly (P &lt; 0.001) decreased during 1st–14th days and during 15th–30th days a recovery which were observed in food, water consumption, and in body weight of the EG1 (60 dB), EG2 (80 dB), and EG3 (100 dB). A percentage (%) decrease was found, i.e., 0.76, 0.37, 3.87, 25.89, and 30.06% in body weight of EG1 (60 dB), EG2 (80 dB), EG3 (100 dB), EG4 (120 dB), and EG5 (140 dB) experimental groups, respectively.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1874 Qualitative Evaluation and Wound Healing Potential of Selected Medicinal Plants by Excision Wound Model 2020-08-19T14:47:37+0530 Neelesh Kumar nilesh_kumar029@rediffmail.com <p>Objective: The aim of the paper was to assess the wound healing potential of three medicinal plants using the excision wound healing model on albino rat. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet extraction method was utilized for the partition of the constituent of interest. Qualitative analysis and phytochemical screening were performed for the detection of tannins, alkaloids, resins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, proteins, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Three plants extract used for the ointment formulation and prepared by the addition of extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus, Murraya koenigii, and Punica granatum in polyethylene glycol ointment base. Three ointment formulations and six extracts with 5% and 10% extract concentration have been used. Excision wound rat model utilized for the wound healing potential. Results and Conclusion: All three plants, including A. heterophyllus Lam., M. koenigii Linn., and P. granatum Linn. extracted for the active constituent. The pharmacological evaluation on the excision wound healing model suggested that Group-I animals showed 52.09% of healing, whereas povidone-iodine treated animals showed 100.00% healing. On the other hand, the ointment formulation treated F-1 showed 96.47% of wound healing, F-2 showed 97.68% healing, and F-3 showed 99.11% healing. The overall healing results can be represented as following: Control &lt;MKL5 &lt;MKL10 &lt;PGB5 &lt;PGB10 &lt;AHP5 &lt;AHP10 &lt;F-1 &lt;F-2 &lt;F-3 &lt;Standard. F3 ointment formulation is better than the F2 and F1 formulation in wound healing potential as compared to others. Discussion: These studies have indicated that ointment formulations of A. heterophyllus, M. koenigii, P. granatum have been utilized for wound healing potential and it is safer for topical application. Excision wound healing model suggested that the three individual plant extract has shown the wound healing potential, although the prepared ointment formulations F3 have best and synergistic action than the individual. The ointment formulations containing plant extracts in 10% amount have better wound healing potential.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c)