International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2019-03-19T05:33:41+00:00 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <div> <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical &amp; Biological Archive(IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mandsaur University,Mandsaur</a>, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. The Journal publishes Original reviews, Original research articles and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of Sciences and Pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery System: A Review 2019-03-19T05:07:02+00:00 Dr. Ashok Kumar Rajpoot <p>Drug development in the past used to be initiated after the identification of most active molecule. However,<br>this approach leads to a number of drawbacks with the problems being that many molecules which are<br>put into development had poor physicochemical such as solubility and stability and biopharmaceutical<br>such as permeability and enzymatic stability properties, as a consequence of which about 40% of new<br>chemical entities fail to reach the market place. At present, a number of technologies are available to<br>deal with the poor solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of insoluble drugs. However, much<br>attention has been focused on lipid-based formulations, with particular emphasis on self-emulsifying<br>drug delivery systems (SEDDSs). SEDDSs are defined as isotropic mixtures of natural or synthetic<br>oils, solid or liquid surfactants, or one or more hydrophilic solvents and cosolvents/surfactants. On mild<br>agitation followed by dilution in aqueous media, these systems can form fine oil-in-water emulsions<br>or microemulsions (self-micro-EDDS [SMEDDS]). Self-emulsifying formulations spread readily<br>in the gastrointestinal tract, the digestive motility of the stomach and intestine provides the agitation<br>necessary for self-emulsification. SEDDSs produce emulsification with a droplet size between 100 and<br>300 nm, while SMEDDSs form transparent microemulsions with a droplet size of &lt;50 nm. SEDDSs are<br>physically stable formulations that are easy to manufacture. Thus, for lipophilic drug compounds that<br>exhibit dissolution rate-limited absorption, these systems may offer an improvement in the rate and the<br>extent of absorption.</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Issues in Modern Pharmaceutical Packaging - An Indian Perspective 2019-03-19T05:10:07+00:00 C. Vinodhini <p>Indian Pharmaceutical Industry predicting to develop USD 2.60 million by 2020. This contribution will be helpful in the growth of the Indian economy; on another hand, it will set up new challenge. The World Health Organization guideline defined packaging is a process that bulk material must undergo to become finished products. Packaging will not only protect the drug from degradation but also contamination; it will become an important part of drug delivery system. In this review, issues faced by packaging industry such as environmental pollution, regulatory requirements, patient compliances, and anticounterfeiting have described detail. Pharmaceutical packaging industry must involve in the research and development activity to find out the solutions for the issues to produce the product in quality, safety, and effective way to consume.</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quantum Mechanical Study of Some Biological Important Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Different Solvent Media 2019-03-19T05:12:25+00:00 Rajesh Kumar Das <p>Quorum sensing (QS) is a phenomenon in which microcolonies get converted into a mature biofilm through different processes. Thus, by considering this communication system, it is possible to set up a useful new antimicrobial planning without the risk of growing resistance. The QS inhibition (QSI) process is completely safe for the environment and decreases the use of chemical. Keeping in view of this fact, the hamamelitanin (HAM) is one of the best QSIs, inhibiting the biofilm metabolic activity of all tested bacteria. In this study, molecular docking and in silico studies were performed to evaluate the drug likeliness behavior of some ester of gallic acid of D-hamamelose compounds as inhibitors of QS. The study comprised of 34 compounds belonging ester of gallic acid of D-hamamelose along with one standard QSI HAM. The molecular docking of some ester of gallic acid of D-hamamelose with 4g4k protein was performed by the AutoDock 1.5.6 suite. Molecular descriptor properties were evaluated by molinspiration and OSIRIS property explorer. The pharmacophore property has been generated by PharmaGist tools. Out of the 34 derivatives, 10 derivatives have qualified the standard value of the parameters World Drug Index (WDI), modern drug data report (MDDR), drug likeliness, drug score value and attach with the same fragment of protein just like by the natural ligand D-hamamelose or the standard QSI HAM. The binding energies of all the docked complex of compounds have larger negative values than that of HAM. The molecular docking study implied that the qualified compounds may use as a remarkable QSI. The pharmacophore study may be used to design and develop new drugs. This study notably supports a theoretical concept of these compounds as QSIs of Staphylococcus aureus</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of Validated Reversed-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Estimation of Nifedipine In situ Gel Form 2019-03-19T05:18:28+00:00 Ashwini Shelke <p>The primary point of this research was to develop the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of nifedipine in situ gel. The method development was done using different solvents, mobile phase composition, flow rate, and column. The developed technique was approved according to the ICH guideline Q2R1. Chromatographic separation of nifedipine from gel was achieved on Primesil C-8, dimension: 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ, i.e. a stainless steel column 250 mm long, 4.6 mm id loaded with octadecyl silane chemically bonded to permeable silica particles of 5 μm diameter maintained column oven temperature at 25°C. Acetonitrile:methanol:water in the ratio of 9:36:55 (v/v/v) was selected, as it gave symmetrical peak of nifedipine with minimal tailing. The chromatograph were recorded with UV vis detector at 235 nm wavelength and flow rate was 1 ml/min. The accuracy and precision of the methods were determined and validated statistically. Every method demonstrated great reproducibility and observed to be fast, exact, precise, and accurate with percent relative standard deviation &lt;2. The method was observed to be simple, rapid, accurate, and precise. These methods can be effectively connected for the routine investigation of standard preparation and sample preparations.</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation Development and Characterization of Topical Gel for Psoriasis 2019-03-19T05:20:51+00:00 Vrunal V. More <p>The purpose of this research work was to develop and characterize a tacrolimus (TAC) gel using different<br>polymers for the treatment of psoriasis. The physicochemical compatibility was confirmed between<br>TAC and other excipients by Fourier transfer infrared. Formulated gels were characterized for drug<br>content, viscosity, extrudability, skin irritation study, pH, in vitro diffusion study, and stability. Release<br>of TAC from all formulations using dialysis membrane into a phosphate buffer pH 6.8 at 37°C was<br>performed. Optimized batch was selected from this characterization study. Based on the data collected,<br>it was revealed that TAC has proven to be a promising candidate for delivery through gel in the treatment<br>of psoriasis.</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In Silico Studies on 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 1A: Modeling and Docking Studies 2019-03-19T05:27:23+00:00 Mr. Shravan Kumar Gunda <p>Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. It is characterized by the inability to think clearly, make decisions, and form social relationships with others. There are many factors affecting the causation of this disease, but the serotonergic system and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (HTRs) are most commonly associated with it. Three-dimensional structure of the protein HTR 1A was built using Modeller 9.20 using crystal structure of the chimeric protein of 5-HT1B-BRIL in complex with ergotamine (PSI Community Target) (PDB ID: 4IAR) as a template. The generated model was validated using Ramachandran plot, which showed a model of good quality having 95.1% of amino acid residues in the most favored region. Molecular docking studies also showed low binding energy for all the compounds. Morusin exhibited the lowest binding energy of value −8.52 while interacting with Ala289, Ser269, and Gly273.</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In Silico Modeling and Docking Studies on Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Protein 2019-03-19T05:30:38+00:00 Shravan Kumar Gunda <p>Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder including continuously progressive cognitive and functional deficits as well as behavioral changes and is related with amassing of amyloid and tau depositions in the brain. Subjective side effects of AD most ordinarily incorporate deficits in short-term memory, executive and visuospatial dysfunction, and praxis. Mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductase A is encoded by a single gene and is found in both cytosol and mitochondria. Biologically active compounds from different plants have been used to treat various ailments. In the present study, mitochondrial peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase protein sequence from Homo sapiens was retrieved from UniProt and selected structure of the peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase from Escherichia coli (Protein Data Bank [PDB] id: 1FF3) was used as template. The homology model was developed by using Modeller 9.20 version. Molecular docking studies were performed using Autodock4.2. 20 natural compounds were docked against modeled protein. All the compounds exhibited good binding energy. Campesterol showed with lesser energy of −9.0 Kcal/mol.</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Incidence and Prevalence of Prostate Cancer in Middle Aged Male Patients of Western Nepal Using Prostate-specific Antigen and Digital Rectal Examination that Underwent Prostate Biopsy 2019-03-19T05:33:41+00:00 Suman Sharma <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) that underwent a prostate biopsy. From March 2018 to January 2019, a total of 98 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA), demographic data, the incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatitis were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (Group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; and Group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL). Of the 98 biopsied cases, 56% had PCa, 23% had BPH, and 21% had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P &lt; 0.01). The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. The incidence of PCa for Group A and Group B cases was 51% and 65%, respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P &lt; 0.40). In conclusion, TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team are highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. Due to the very high incidence of PCa in the patients with PSA &gt;10 ng/mL, TRUS-guided biopsy is indicated, whatever the findings on DRE and/or LUTS, since the PCa detection rate is high.</p> 2019-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##