http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/issue/feed International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2020-11-06T15:01:55+0530 Mr. M A Naidu editor@ijpba.info Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive (IJPBA) with <strong>ISSN: 2582-6050(Online)</strong>&nbsp;is published quarterly since 2010 by the Mandsaur University, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India.&nbsp;&nbsp; Our journal is a quarterly journal and&nbsp;&nbsp; publishes four issues per year. The management of journal handling everything unbiased and maintains qualification of journal. The journal publishes original reviews, original research articles, and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of sciences and pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="http://www.ijpba.info/">http://www.ijpba.info</a>.</p> <p>The character of the publications:</p> <ul> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology</li> <ul> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> <li class="show">Chemistry</li> <ul> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> <li class="show">Medicine</li> <ul> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </ul> http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1886 Role of Clinical Pharmacist in Management of Congestive Heart Failure – A Brief Review 2020-11-06T14:59:29+0530 Kondramutla Sravanthi Kondramutlasravanthi@gmail.com <p>Heart failure (HF) is a clinical condition occurs when cardiac output is insufficient to meet the demands of tissue perfusion or does so by elevating filling pressure. HF is due to either systolic or diastolic dysfunction which reduces ventricular filling (diastolic dysfunction) and/or myocardial contractility (systolic dysfunction). Clinically, cardiac disease prevalence increases with individual age. Cardiac dysfunction occurs due to change in blood volume, and neurohumoral transmission status these desirable mechanisms to maintain adequate cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. The activation of three compensatory neurohormonal systems triggers the cardiac dysfunction leads to HF. Clinical pharmacist plays a role in disease management by identifying the risk factors, stage of severity, educating the patients and health-care practitioners and implementing the awareness programs, and modification of lifestyle interventions with in health-care system beneficial to the community may reduce the progression of disease severity.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1887 Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance: Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception of Undergraduate Medical Students 2020-11-06T15:01:09+0530 Dr. Satish Kumar Deo satish.deo@iom.edu.np <p>Introduction: This study aim to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and perception of undergraduate medical students about antibiotic stewardship. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the medical students of Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Nepal from both basic (first two years) and clinical sciences (third year onwards). Materials and Methods: Responses were scored to assess the knowledge level of the students, their attitude and perception towards antibiotic stewardship and resistance. Results: In this study, 231 out of 450 undergraduate medical students (response rate=51.33%) took part. The mean knowledge, attitude and perception scores of the respondents were 2.41±1.103, 5.69±0.917, and 13.10±1.328 respectively. Though their overall attitude [223 (96.5%)] and perception [230 (99.6%)] towards antibiotic stewardship and resistance were good, their knowledge level seemed unsatisfactory [105 (45.5%)]. Statistically significant difference in the scores between basic science and clinical science students (P&lt;0.001) was seen. Discussion: More than half the medical students’ knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was inadequate. A perceivable difference between scores of basic and clinical science students was observed, suggesting that the knowledge, attitude, and perception of basic science students get better as they enter clinical phase. Conclusion: Suitable interventions to address the lag in curriculum should be planned right from basic science level to further strengthen their knowledge regarding antibiotic stewardship and resistance.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1888 Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of New 1,3,5-Trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines Derivative for Analgesic Potential 2020-11-06T15:01:24+0530 O. P. Tiwari optiwari79@gmail.com <p>Objective: The objective of the paper was to design, synthesis, and characterization of new 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines derivative and to evaluate for analgesic potential. Materials and Methods: The 1,3,5-tri-substituted-2-pyrazolines derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of chalcone derivatives with 4-hydrazinylbenzene sulfonamide hydrochloride and phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride. Total 16 compounds have been synthesized and characterized by the IR, 1HNMR, and mass spectral analysis. Proposed compounds have been evaluated for analgesic activity. The synthesized compounds also evaluated for the analgesic activity by the following two methods, that is, hot plate test method and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Pentazocine and acetyl acetic acid were used as standard drug for compare the efficacy. Results and Discussion: The analgesic activity of the 16 synthesized compound series A1-A8, and B1-B8 has been evaluated using hot plate test method and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. The results of the evaluation have been viewed by taking pentazocine and acetyl acetic acid as the standard drug. In hot plate test, series A1-A8, shown delay the paw withdrawal latency time for compound A2 (10.30 s), A4 (9.45 s), A7 (11.65 s), and A8 (11.26 s) after 90 min. In series, B1-B8 shown delay the paw withdrawal latency time for compound B2 (9.10 s) and B7 (10.42 s) after 90 min, inhibit the pain sensation, and inhibit pain produced by thermal means. Synthesized compounds of series A1-A8, compounds A2, A5, A6, A7, and A8 were shown 83.00, 76.01, 80.34, 86.99, and 88.15 were shown percent inhibition, significantly (p&lt;0.05 and p&lt;0.001, respectively) and reduced the number of wriths induced by 0.6% acetic acid at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg) appears to be better effective in reducing the number of wriths, it significantly (P &lt; 0.001) reduced the number of wriths by 99.0%. The compounds B1, B3, and B4 have shown least active activity. These all finding suggest that these synthesized compounds have the potential as analgesic agent. Conclusion: The 1,3,5-pyrazoline derivatives has been successfully synthesized and evaluated for analgesic activity of mice model and results data indicate that compounds A2, A5, A6, A7, and A8 were shown 83.00, 76.01, 80.34, 86.99, and 88.15%, and compounds B2, B7, and B8 were shown 72.25, 74.27, and 74.56% inhibitions. The presence of SO2NH2 is essential for analgesic activity.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1889 Synthesis, Characterization, and Antifungal Evaluation of Some New 1,3,5-Trisubstituted Pyrazole Derivatives 2020-11-06T15:01:35+0530 Dr. Alok Pal Jain rkdfcp95@gmail.com <p>Objective: The objective of the paper was to design, synthesis, and characterization of new 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines derivative and evaluate for antifungal activity. Materials and Methods: The 1,3,5-tri-substituted-2-pyrazolines derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of chalcone derivatives with succinic hydrazide in the environment of pyridine. Total 20 compounds have been synthesized and characterized by the IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectral analysis. Antifungal activity of the compounds carried out on four fungal strains, that is, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Rhizopus oryzae in two different concentrations, that is, 50 and 100 μg/ml by agar-diffusion method using cup-plate method and Ketoconazole was used as standard antifungal drug. Results and Discussion: In accordance with the data from antifungal activity, all the synthesized 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazole derivatives (ME1-ME8, CL1-CL8, and BR1-BR4) have shown mild to best activity against tested organisms. The data of antifungal activity against the fungal strains (S. cerevisiae, A. niger, C. albicans, and R. oryzae) suggested the order of activity of compounds: BR-3 &gt; BR-2 &gt; BR-1 &gt; CL-4 &gt; BR-4 &gt; CL-3 &gt; CL-2 &gt; ME-3&gt; ME-2 &gt; CL-5 &gt; CL-6 &gt; ME-4 &gt; ME-5 &gt; ME-6 &gt; ME-7 &gt; CL-7 &gt; CL-8 &gt; ME-8 &gt; CL-1 &gt; ME-1. The presence of electronegative group (Br, Cl, F, and NO2) either at third and fifth position of 1,3,5-pyrazoline ring is required for the potent antifungal activity. The presence of electronegative group (Br, Cl) at third and fifth position may necessary for the best activity against bacterial and fungal strains but the addition of F, NO2 has shown the moderate activity but in case of -CH3 and -OCH3 substitution may diminish the activity. The series BR-1 to BR-4 is most active compound of the synthesized compounds. Conclusion: The 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazole derivatives has been successfully synthesized and antifungal activity of the compounds denotes that the series BR-1 to BR-4 is most active compound of the all twenty synthesized compounds. The addition of electronegative group (Br, Cl) at third and fifth position in pyrazole ring may necessary for the activity against fungal strains.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1890 Real-time Study for Uses of Opened Multidose Vials of Live Attenuated Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine 2020-11-06T15:01:46+0530 Dr. Amit Kumar akbibcol@gmail.com <p>Introduction: This study was aimed to find out real-time for the use of opened multidose vials of live attenuated bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) containing type I and III. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in continuation of a preliminary study with opened multidose bOPV vials of only five batches and established use of the safe and efficacious form of the vaccine up to 56th day (8 weeks) after opening and then stored at +4°C temperature. In the current study, collected samples from ten bOPV batches were divided into two types; one type samples were stored at +4°C temperature and second type samples were stored at −20°C temperature and both types samples were studied in the real-time study for safe and efficacious use of the opened multidose vials in subsequent immunization sessions on weekly intervals from 1st week to 8th week. A total of six critical and quality attributes of the vaccine were studied, that is, potency, identity, sterility, pH, kanamycin activity, and vaccine vial monitor (VVM) status. After completion of the 8th week, the study was performed to find out the real-time and temperature for the uses of the vaccine, and all quality attributes were performed on a daily basis to the withdrawal of the subsequent sessions. Results and Discussion: Results of all the quality attributes (potency, identity, sterility, pH, kanamycin activity, and VVM status) were qualified the acceptance criteria as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia-2018 and obtained results of one type samples (stored at +4°C temperature) were compared with the same batches second type samples; stored at −20°C temperature use as a reference standard. The real-time study suggested that opened multidose live attenuated bOPV vials can use in safe and efficacious conditions up to 59th day after opening and stored at +4°C temperature. Conclusion: This study provides scientific strength to decide the real-time uses of efficacious and safe conditions of opened multidose live attenuated bOPV vials after withdrawal subsequent sessions only up to 59th day after opening and stored at +4°C temperature.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020 http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1891 The Effect of Obesity on Pulmonary Function among Healthy Non-smoking Adults 2020-11-06T15:01:55+0530 Kanchana Nachimuthu dr.kanchana2005@gmail.com <p>Background: Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat which is associated with comorbidities. It is a growing health issue worldwide. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of obesity on pulmonary function in overweight and obese adults who were non-smokers and did not have any respiratory diseases. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 181 healthy adults of both sexes between 20 and 60 years, those attended master health check-up and medicine outpatient department. The study participants were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups according to the WHO BMI classification. Forced vital capacity in liters (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second in liters (FEV1), FVC/FEV1, peak expiratory flow rate in liter/min (PEFR), and forced expiratory flow (FEF)25–75% were recorded. These three BMI groups were compared using one-way ANOVA, correlation was assessed by Pearson’s “r.” Linear regression analysis was applied. Results: Significant differences in lung volumes were found in three BMI groups. Obese and overweight subjects had significantly lower FVC, FEV1, FEF25%–75%, and PEFR (P &lt; 0.0001) as compared to normal weight subjects. However, there was no statistically significant difference found in FEV1/FVC ratio. There were significant linear relationships between obesity and pulmonary function. BMI had significant negative linear association at the level of P &lt; 0.001 with FVC% (r = −0.355), FEV1% (r = −0.361), FEF25%–75% (−0.432), and PEFR (r = −0.501). FEV1/FVC ratio was negatively correlated, but statistically not significant. Conclusion: BMI has a detrimental effect on pulmonary functions in overweight and obese subjects. Reduction in FVC and FEV1 was the most representative findings among the overweight and obese subjects, suggesting the presence of a restrictive respiratory pattern associated with obesity. It might be due to decrease in lung and chest wall compliance and increase in work of breathing.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2020